All CEP Technical Reports
CEP Technical Report No. 36 1996: Status of Protected
Area Systems in the Wider Caribbean Region
Area 112,088 sq. km.
Protected Areas (PAs)
|PAs with Marine or Coastal Zones||Extension|
|World Heritage Sites||1||1||500,000|
(1) Totals have been adjusted to avoid double counting areas that are classified in 2 or more categories.
Policy and Legislation
The 1982 constitution declares all natural resources to be state property, and the rational use of such resources to be in the national interest. The state is obliged to conserve the environment and is responsible for imposing regulations on natural resource use. It is also empowered to create protected areas.
Current forest policy dates back to 1986 and was formulated in accordance with the National Development Plan. Its aim is to ensure the continuity of forest resources through rational exploitation, conservation, and improvement of forest resources by means of current forestry legislation and the application of social integration projects by the national forestry administration.
Provisions for environmental protection and natural resources occur in a number of different legislative acts, such as the Water Law (Ley de Aguas, 1927) which regulates the use of public water resources; the current Fishing Law (Ley de Pesca), Decree No. 154 (1959) which protects marine wildlife and ecosystems; and the Mining Code (Código de Minería) Decree No. 143 (1968) which merely mentions hunting or reserved zones (zonas vedadas o reservadas) to protect forest, archaeological or zoological heritage.
The first regulations for the establishment of protected areas are given in the Forestry Law (Ley Forestal) Decree 85 (1971), which declares the Secretariat of Natural Resources (Secretaría de Recursos Naturales) responsible for the development of national parks and equivalent reserves, and establishes a methodology for their selection and development. However, detailed definitions of the different management categories are not given. Forest exploitation and commercialisation are to be rationalised, and multiple-use forest reserves incorporating recreational activities and environmental protection are encouraged. Forested areas within the national forest estate are classified according to use, and all forested land for 250 m on either side of any water source and for 150 m around lakes and on either side of rivers and streams is protected.
Decree-Law No. 103 (1974) provided for the establishment of the Honduran Forest Development Corporation (Corporación Hondureña de Desarrollo Forestal, COHDEFOR), and the nationalisation of the forest industry and all trees with economic value. The objectives of COHDEFOR include ensuring rational use of forest resources and integrating forestry practices into the national economy. One of the principal projects of COHDEFOR, the Social Forestry System (Sistema Social Forestal), is described.
Protected area establishment and forest resource regulation are governed by the General Forestry Regulation, Resolution No. 634 (Reglamento General Forestal, Acuerdo No. 634) of 9 April 1984, which details the principles of the 1971 Forestry Law and of Decree No. 103 providing for the creation of COHDEFOR. The national forest estate is defined and details of the forest classification system of the 1971 forestry law are given (Annex I).
National forested areas are divided into protected forest zones (zonas protegidas forestales) for protection purposes; zones of forestry interest (zonas de interés forestal) for productive purposes; and non-classified forest areas (areas forestales no-clasificadas). Provision is made for the creation of national parks, natural monuments and other protected areas (collectively known as protected forest zones), and the processes for their selection and establishment are set out. Private land may be expropriated for their establishment.
Decree No. 123 (1974) provided for the creation of the General Directorate for Forest Resources and Wildlife (Dirección General de Recursos Forestales y Vida Silvestre, RENARE) within the Secretariat of Natural Resources (Secretaría de Recursos Naturales), to be vested with forest protection and conservation responsibilities and includes the management of national parks and other protected areas.
However, owing to the lack of political support, RENARE never undertook these functions effectively, and natural resource protection has remained the responsibility of COHDEFOR (Yates 1987). The exact distribution of responsibilities for protected areas and natural resources is ambiguous. Decree No. 74-91 (1991) dissolves RENARE and transfers its responsibility for protected areas to the Department of Natural Areas and Fauna (Departamento de Areas Silvestres y Fauna) within COHDEFOR (Trinidad, pers. comm., 1992). Details of this recent decree are not currently available.
In 1987 the Cloud Forest Law (Ley de Bosques Nublados) Decree No. 87-87 was passed. This law declares the protection of cloud forest ecosystems to be in the national interest and provides for the creation of 11 national parks, eight wildlife refuges and 18 biological reserves in cloud forest areas. In each area a permanent protected zone (zona protegida a perpetuidad) was established, within which agricultural development is not permitted, and buffer zones in which pre-existing agricultural activities were to be regulated. All these areas were to be administered by the Ministry of Natural Resources through RENARE in co-ordination with various other institutions and local authorities.
The 1992 Law for the Modernisation and Development of the Agricultural Sector (Decree 31-92 Ley para la modernización y desarrollo del sector agrícola) eliminated COHDEFORs role in forest harvesting, processing and commercialisation, and reaffirmed the institutions mandate in protected areas, forest land and wildlife administration.
Within COHDEFOR, the Department of Protected Areas and Wildlife (DAPVS) was organised to carryout the institutional responsibilities for managing or delegating management of protected areas and the cultural and natural resources they contain, promotion of co-ordinating mechanisms at the national and international level; and promotion of the sustainable use of natural resources among communities in and around protected areas. More precise definitions for protected areas categories are provided (COHDEFOR 1993b).
The General Environment Law (Ley General del Ambiente) was passed in 1993. The Law provided for the creation of the Ministry of Environment (Secretaria de Estado en el Despacho del Ambiente). Articles 28 & 37 affirm the Ministries responsibility for developing policies and guidelines for protected area administration together with other ministries and decentralised institutions and municipalities.
The Regulations for the Environment Law, February 1994 (Reglamento General de la Ley del Ambiente) indicate that proposals to protect wildlands should be prepared in co-ordination with the National Forestry Administration (COHDEFOR).
Yates (1987) noted that problems existed due to the marked lack of environmental legislation and inconsistency among the existing legislative acts applying to natural resources. This situation has improved in past years, but effectiveness is still less than desired.
Conventions & Treaties
Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD, 1992)
Central American Biodiversity Convention (CABD, 1992)
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES, 1973)
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (LOS, 1982)
Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat (Ramsar, 1971)
Convention concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage (World Heritage, 1972)
Programmes & Associations
Centro Agronomico Tropical de Investigacion y Ensenanza (CATIE, 1972)
Caribbean Environment Programme (CEP, 1981) and its Specially Protected Areas & Wildlife Programme (SPAW, 1990)
Latin American Network for Technical Co-operation in National Parks, Protected Areas & Wildlife (LAN-NPPAW)
UNESCO's Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB, 1972)
FAO Tropical Forestry Action Plan (TFAP, 1985)
Current legislation states that the Ministry of the Environment (Secretaría del Estado del Despacho de Ambiente) is responsible for natural resources. The control and exploitation of forest resources and the administration of natural areas are the responsibility of COHDEFOR, a semi-autonomous institute responsible for implementing national forest policies in co-ordination with national development plans (Trinidad, pers. comm., 1992). In practice, natural resources have been managed by the various governmental sectors with interest in a particular resource or area, and responsibility is divided accordingly.
The past lack of effectiveness demonstrated by the central government motivated the involvement of a number of local governmental and non-governmental institutions in protected areas management. While this situation was positive in that a large number of institutions participate. It has made co-ordination and communication more difficult. Now that COHDEFOR takes sole responsibility for protected areas, the situation may improve (Trinidad, pers. comm., 1992).
Since 1991 COHDEFOR has been responsible for formulating and implementing national policies and laws regarding the protection, conservation and management of wildlands and wildlife; promoting and co-ordinating scientific research activities; encouraging the participation of urban and rural populations in conservation activities; and developing a National System of Protected Wildlands (Sistema Nacional de Areas Silvestres Protegidas) (Muñoz 1991, Trinidad, pers. comm., 1992). As part of a plan to develop projects to strengthen current protection measures, seven priority protected areas in five different forestry regions (Muñoz 1991) were identified for immediate support.
Professional and technical staff of the Department of Protected Areas and Wildlife (DAPVS) totalled 19, with the majority assigned to the protected areas section. Outside of the capital each of the 10 forestry regions is assigned a protected areas co-ordinator. The department also had a small number of park guards on the payroll.
The Honduran Institute of Anthropology and History (Instituto Hondureño de Antropología e Historia, IHAH) manages the Ruinas de Copán Natural Monument (Barborak et al 1984), and the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras manages Cuero y Salado Wildlife Reserve (Durón, pers. comm., 1992).
There are a number of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) working in conservation partially due to the opening the government has made towards civil society, and the past ineffectiveness of the centralised agencies in responding to local needs and conservation priorities. Over the past eight years their numbers and variety of activities have expanded greatly. NGOs now active in planning, managing or supporting protected areas include: FUCSA, GRAPLA, Aldea Global, PROLANSATE, BICA, PRODAI, FUCELA, ASECOVE, FHPF, AMITIGRA, FUCAGUA, MOPAWI, CODDEFFAGOLF and ECOLAGO.
As the number of institutional players has increased, so has international support for protected areas management in Honduras. Active programmes include: ACDI, IDB, CATIE, COSUDE, Caribbean Conservation Corporation, EC, GTZ, IUCN, OAS, ODA, UNDP, USAID, US Peace Corps, USFWS, Wildlife Conservation Society, WWF and others.
Problems in natural resource administration arise from the lack of public awareness of conservation organisations and the lack of training and motivation. There is a considerable amount of ambiguity regarding the distribution of responsibilities, and a marked lack of collaboration between the respective institutions involved in natural resource management, precluding effective protected area management (Yates 1987).
Honduras is the second largest country in Central America and the most mountainous, with over 75% of the land having a gradient greater than 20 (Campanella et al 1982). The only flat areas are the narrow coastal plains along the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Fonseca in the Pacific Ocean, and a few interior valleys (AHE 1987, Campanella et al 1982). The country is divided naturally into four geographically distinct regions: the highlands; interior valleys; lowlands of the Caribbean; and the lowlands of the Pacific (Campanella et al 1982).
The highlands of the interior account for 81.7% of total land area. The dominant vegetation is pine forest which makes the soil acid and unsuitable for agriculture. Cattle ranching has been the primary economic activity in the region from colonial times (Campanella et al 1982). The soils of the interior valleys are more fertile, and intensive cultivation of vegetables and sugar occurs.
The Pacific lowlands along the Gulf of Fonseca are bordered by mangrove forests and narrow coastal plains. Cattle ranching, cotton, sugar and vegetable production are extensive in this region (Campanella et al 1982). Around 60% of the total population of Honduras lives in rural regions and 40% in urban areas (Anon. 1988).
The marine influence, the mountainous topography and the various soil types have given rise to a great variety of ecosystems. Using the Holdridge (1967) classification system, eight different life zones are found in the country. The humid and very humid life zones of the Caribbean slopes cover over 75% of total area (Campanella et al 1982).
The Caribbean lowlands account for around 16.4% of total land area, and together with the valleys connecting the Caribbean coastal plains they constitute the most fertile soils in Honduras (Campanella et al 1982). Banana and palm cultivation is extensive.
The most eastern part of the region, and extending down into Nicaragua, is collectively known as La Mosquitia or the Moskito Coast. It is characterised by natural pine forest plains interspersed with tropical forests, and has the richest biodiversity and the lowest population density in the country with a long history of indigenous civilisation (Campanella et al 1982, Herlihy and Herlihy n.d.).
The size of most areas is legally undefined due to the lack of precise boundaries in the authorising legislation. Estimates of coverage range up to 3 million ha. Available data indicate that Honduran protected areas cover 2,488,830 ha, approximately 22% of the national territory (Medina, pers. comm., 1994; Midence, pers. comm., 1992). Gaps that need to be filled includes the coverage of coastal marine areas, the wetlands of Caratasca, and La Laguna de Guaymoreto which are proposed as wildlife refuges (IUCN 1993, Medina, in litt., 1994).
As of 1993 the proposed system included 44 areas decreed by the national assembly, 24 areas established by presidential decree, and a further 36 proposed areas. Only 17 of these areas had their limits defined either on paper or on the ground. COHDEFOR reported a direct institutional presence in 11 areas. Management activities in the remaining areas, if present, are carried out by local government or NGOs (COHDEFOR 1993b).
The development of a functional protected areas system is a slow process (Cruz 1986). A significant advance was made with the passing of the 1987 legislation and subsequent protection of a number of cloud forest areas, and the establishment of the Department of Protected Areas in COHDEFOR. The effective implementation of this legislation will undoubtedly be difficult, but the prospects are much brighter now than they have been in the recent past.
In 1987 the governments of Honduras, Guatemala and El Salvador signed an agreement to create the tri-national cloud forest biosphere reserve El Trifinio or La Fraternidad in the mountainous region where the three nations meet. Efforts are now being made to elaborate a co-operative management plan for the reserve that will integrate the local populations of all three nations, and to obtain official recognition as an international biosphere reserve (Mardones 1988, Ugalde and Godoy 1992).
The Honduran and Nicaraguan governments have initiated projects for a joint management agreement for a large tract of land along this border. A similar agreement has been proposed between Honduras, Nicaragua and El Salvador for the shared mangrove estuaries and coastal zone of the Gulf of Fonseca (Barborak, pers. comm., 1992, Ugalde and Godoy 1992).
Río Plátano Biosphere Reserve was established in 1980 in this region to protect both natural resources and local populations of Miskito, Pech, and Garífuna Indians. However, colonisation into the area has become an increasing threat to the integrity of the natural ecosystems and the indigenous communities (Herlihy and Herlihy, n.d.).
Departamento de Areas Protegidas y Vida Silvestre DAPVS-COHDEFOR, Apdo 1378, TEGUCIGALPA (Tel/FAX: 222614)
Fundación Cuero y Salado, Apdo 122, La Ceiba, ATLANTIDA (Tel: 43 0329)
Secretaría de Estado en el Despacho del Ambiente (SEDA), Edif. Palmira, 5to Piso, Colonia Palmira, Tegucigalpa, Honduras. Tel. 504-39-0241, FAX 504-37-5726
AHE (1987) Ecología. Boletín informativo de la Asociación Hondureña de Ecología (AHE), Tegucigalpa. 14 pp.
Anon. (1988) Mesa redonda; participación internacional en el desarrollo forestal de Honduras. República de Honduras. 206 pp.
Barborak, J., Morales, L., and MacFarland, C. (1984) Plan de Manejo y Desarrollo del Monumento Nacional Ruinas de Copán. IHAH/CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica. 156 pp.
Campanella, P., Dickinson, J., DuBois, R., Dulin, P., Glick, D., Merkel, A., Pool, D., Rios, R., Skillman, D., Talbot, J. (1982) Honduras. Perfil ambiental del país: un estudio de campo. Resumen ejecutivo. USAID. 201 pp.
COHDEFOR (n.d.) Areas protegidas de Honduras. Departamento de Areas Protegidas y Vida Silvestre, Corporación Hondureña de Desarrollo Forestal (COHDEFOR). 12 pp.
COHDEFOR (1993a) Plan Operativo 1994-95 DAPVS-COHDEFOR.
COHDEFOR (1993b) Manual de Normas Tecnicas-Administrativa para el manejo y administracion de las Areas Protegidas de Honduras. 43 pp.
Cruz, G.A. (1986) Guia de los parques nacionales, refugios de vida silvestre, reservas biológicas y monumentos naturales de Honduras. Asociación Hondureña de Ecología, Tegucigalpa, Honduras. 49 pp.
FAO (n.d.) La red latinoamericana de cooperación técnica en parques nacionales, otras áreas protegidas, flora y fauna silvestres. Oficina regional de la FAO para América Latina y el Caribe, Santiago, Chile. 8 pp.
Herlihy, P.H. and Herlihy, L.H. (n.d.) Herencia de nuestro pasado: Reserva de la Biósfera del Río Plátano. WCI, WWF, ROCAP, CCC, COHDEFOR/AID. 26 pp.
IUCN (1993) Parks and Progress. Protected areas and economic development in Latin America and the Caribbean, Cambridge, UK. 240 pp.
Mardones, C. (1988) Trifinio: un desafío de la conservación para tres países. Flora y fauna y áreas silvestres 3(7). Oficina Regional de la FAO para América Latina y el Caribe, Santiago, Chile. p.18-p.22.
Muñoz, E. (1991) Perfil general del departamento de áreas protegidas y vida silvestre. 8 pp.
Rendón, J. (1986) Legislación de pesca y legislación del medio ambiente y vida silvestre, informe técnico TCP/HON/4509 (A). Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Agricultura y la Alimentación, Roma. 32 pp.
Ugalde, A. and Godoy, J.C. (1992) Regional Review: Central America. IUCN Regional reviews. IV World Congress on National Parks and Protected Areas, Caracas, Venezuela, 10-21 February 1992. pp. 13.3-13.27.
Yates, E. (1987) Perspectiva del derecho de recursos naturales en Honduras. Tegucigalpa. 27 pp.
ANNEX I: LEGAL INSTRUMENTS
Definitions of protected area designations, as legislated, together with authorities responsible for their administration.
Title: Reglamento General Forestal (General Forestry Regulation), Resolution No. 634
Date: 17 July 1984
Brief description: Develops the principles of the 1971 Forestry Law (Ley Forestal) and the 1974 Law for the Honduran Forestry Development Corporation (Ley de la Corporación Hondureña de Desarrollo Forestal, COHDEFOR). The structure and function of COHDEFOR is given. The national forestry estate is classified according to use, and regulations are detailed. Provision is made for the creation of national parks and other protected areas as part of the national forest estate, and definitions are given.
Administrative authority: COHDEFOR is responsible for implementing provisions of the legislation including the administration and management of protected areas.
CLASSIFIED FOREST AREA (AREA FORESTAL CLASIFICADA)
Protected Forest Zone (Zona Forestal Protegida) An area of public or private forest declared to be of great importance for the conservation of the natural habitats, water, or soils. The following areas are particularly to be considered for designation as protective forest zones: mountains and springs; water sources; water basins; areas around lakes and water resources, permanent and temporary water courses; and forested areas that merit classification as national parks or other protected spaces. The following protected areas are considered to be protected forest zones:
Parque Nacional (National Park) An area of exceptional natural beauty, forest cover or natural ecosystems particularly primitive ecosystems unaltered by human activity, to be protected for its species richness. Access to the area and exploitation of natural resources are strictly regulated.
Monumento Natural (Natural Monument) Those natural formations or elements (such as outstanding trees, caves or waterfalls) that are located in forested areas whose natural characteristics merit it special protection.
Sitio Natural de Interés Nacional (Natural Site of National Interest) A natural area with defined limits that, although it does not meet the necessary conditions to be declared a national park, it merits protection to ensure that it remains in its natural state.
In all protected forest zones including national parks and natural protected spaces, no activities are permitted that would alter the vegetation, wildlife, scenery or soil, or decrease water resources unless specified in the management plans approved by the state forest administration. In national parks and natural protected spaces recreational activities are permitted only with prior authorisation from COHDEFOR. Construction of buildings for tourism is permitted only on co-operative agreement between COHDEFOR and the Honduran Tourism Institute (Instituto Hondureño de Turismo). Scientific investigation is the only other activity permitted within the areas.
Zone of Forestry Interest (Zona de Interés Forestal) An area of public or private forest classified according to its relevant economic interest particularly for extraction activities.
NON-CLASSIFIED FOREST AREA (AREA FORESTAL NO CLASIFICADA) A private or publicly owned forested area not included in any of the above categories, the function of which has not yet been determined.
Title: Manual de Normas Tecnicas-Administrativa para el manejo y administracion de las Areas Protegidas de Honduras.
Brief Description: Provides terms of reference for the organisation and operation of the Department of Protected Areas and Wildlife within COHDEFOR. Defines the makeup and functions of the Honduran Protected Areas System (SINAPH), describes the management categories included, describes the administrative structure, objectives and functioning of the Department of Protected Areas and Wildlife, defines mechanisms for the creation and/or modification of established areas, and the management of individual areas.
Administrative Authority: Department of Protected Areas & Wildlife (DAPVS), COHDEFOR.
Biological Reserve (Reserva Biológica) A pristine area containing ecosystems, flora, or fauna of scientific value. The principal function is to protect, conserve, and maintain natural processes and phenomena in an unaltered state for research purposes. These are areas that because of their importance are administered by the DAPVS. Their administration can be ceded to other organisations public or private by means of formal agreements that guarantee the achievement of the area's objectives.
National Park Extensive areas that contain outstanding natural features of national interest. Their function is to conserve natural or scenic zones, perpetuate representative samples of the countries principal ecosystems, provide opportunities for research, and environmental education. These are areas that because of their importance are administered by the DAPVS. Their administration can be ceded to other organisations public or private by means of formal agreements that guarantee the achievement of the area's objectives.
Cultural Monuments Areas that contain one or more cultural features of national importance. Their function is to protect these features, and if compatible provide research, educational and recreational opportunities. As stipulated by Decree No. 81-84 these areas will be administered by the Honduran Institute of Anthropology and History.
Natural Monuments Contain one main natural feature of national interest that deserves protection because of it's uniqueness or because it is in danger of extinction. Their principal function is to protect and preserve natural features and genetic material, provide recreational, educational and research opportunities when compatible with their primary objective. Because of their reduced size, their administration should be assumed by local municipal governments via agreements with COHDEFOR.
Wildlife Refuge Areas where protection is essential to avoid the extinction of specific species of wildlife. Their principal function is to guarantee the perpetuation of wildlife species, populations or habitats, and to provide research and recreational opportunities when compatible with the primary objective. The controlled harvest of certain resources is permissible. These are areas that because of their importance are administered by the DAPVS. Their administration can be ceded to other organisations public or private by means of formal agreements that guarantee the achievement of the area's objectives.
Anthropological Reserves Forested areas, usually extensive, with little impact from modern technology, and inhabited by ethnic groups living in dispersed patterns whose impact upon the ecosystems they live in does not cause environmental degradation. Their principal function is to protect the ecosystems and lifestyles of the low density populations that are found therein. These areas should be managed directly by indigenous organisations with technical assistance provided by DAPVS or other organisations when required.
Water Production Areas Areas generally forested, with steep slopes and broken terrain, and have great importance as water catchments. Their principal function is to maintain and improve the quantity and quality water for human consumption. Due to their functions and general characteristics, these areas should be managed by local governments with technical support provided by the Watershed Management Section of DAPVS.
National Forests Relatively extensive areas, generally forested, whose principal function is production of timber, water resources, wildlife, forage and recreational opportunities based upon the principals of sustainable resource management. Management responsibility is assigned to the Forest Department of COHDEFOR.
Private Natural Reserves Natural areas in private property, with variable size, administered privately whose objectives are compatible with those defined for the Honduran System of Protected Areas (SINAPH). The DAPVS together with the Honduran Tourism Institute should stimulate the creation of this type of area and develop legal backing for their operation.
Biosphere Reserves (UNESCO MAB) Areas with representative coverage of major biomes, singular natural features, patterns of balanced land and resource use, or modified ecosystems capable of being restored. Their principal function is the conservation of genetic resources and ecosystem integrity, permitting natural evolutionary processes and the construction of research and monitoring sites.
World Heritage Sites (UNESCO WHS) Areas with natural or cultural features of global importance. Based upon the existence of areas that demonstrate evolutionary periods, geological processes, unique features or natural communities, or with great artistic, scientific, cultural, technological value, or otherwise representing ancient events.
Transfrontier Protected Areas Agreements and treaties concerning conservation measures of these areas will be promoted with neighbouring countries.
ANNEX II: HONDURAS PROTECTED AREAS LIST
|Name of area||IUCN & National Mgmt. Categories||Presence of Marine or Coastal Zones||Area
|Islas de la Bahía||II||NP||YES||29,416||not available|
|Montaña de Comayagua||II||NP||44,453||1987|
|Montaña de Yoro||II||NP||38,298||1987|
|Punta Sal||NP||YES||78,000||not available|
|Sierra de Agalta||II||NP||65,500||1987|
|Swan Islands Marine Park||II||NP||YES||1991|
|Jardín Botánico de Lancetilla||IV||PA||1,253||1978|
|Montaña de San Pablo||IV||BR||1987|
|Montaña el Pacayal||IV||BR||1987|
|Bahia de Chismuyo||IV||WR||YES|
|Cuero y Salado||IV||WR||YES||13,225||1988|
|Lagunas de Invierno||IV||WR||YES||1992|
|Montaña Verde||IV||WR||8,300||not available|
|Punta Izopo||IV||WR||YES||11,500||not available|
|El Cajón||VIII||FR||33,696||not available|
|Golfo de Fonseca||VIII||FR||YES||50,000||1958|
|Sierra de Omoa||VIII||FR||8,315||not available|
|Cerro Guanacaure||VIII||MU||1,000||not available|
|Lago de Yojoa||VIII||MU||34,628||1971|
|Río Plátano Biosphere||IX||BR/WHS||YES||500,000||1980|
NP = National Parks
BR = Biological Reserves
WR = Wildlife Refuges
PA = Protected Area
FR = Forest Reserves
MU = Multiple Use Reserves
BR/WHS = Biosphere Reserve & World Heritage Site
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