|An Overview of Land Based Sources of Marine Pollution
|This page is one of a series of web pages developed by the CAR/RCU on various Environmental Issues in the Caribbean. These pages are a good starting point for research into many of the pressing concerns of the nations and territories of the Wider Caribbean Region. They contain definitions, descriptions, discussions, links to relevant on-line documents and web sites.||
The major sources of coastal and marine pollution originating from the land vary from country to country. The nature and intensity of development activities, the size of the human population, the state and type of industry and agriculture are but a few of the factors contributing to each countrys unique pollution problems. Pollution is discharged either directly into to the sea, or enters the coastal waters through rivers and by atmospheric deposition.
In order to mitigate and control the impact of pollution on coastal and marine resources, it is essential that the type and load of pollutants be identified. This involves determination of the sources and their location, and the volume and concentration of the pollutants. Point sources of pollution are sources that can be identified to one location, such as industrial and sewage treatment plants. Point sources, though easy to identify, account only for a fraction of the land-based sources of pollution affecting coastal and marine environments. Non-point sources are harder to identify, and include urban storm water run-off and overflow discharges, as well as runoff from forest and agriculture. Pollution sources can be located relatively far away from coastal areas and still have an impact. Pollutants from sources and activities within a drainage area can be carried to the coast by rivers. Pollution from distant sources can also enter into the marine environment through atmospheric deposition.
Based on current information, the land based pollutants constituting the greatest threat to coastal and marine ecosystems and to public health in the Wider Caribbean Region are sewage, oil hydrocarbons, sediments, nutrients, pesticides, litter and marine debris, and toxic wastes.
Sewage is one of the most significant pollutants affecting the coastal environments of the Wider Caribbean Region, especially in the developing nations. In 1993, Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) indicated that only 10% of the sewage generated in the Central American and Caribbean Island countries were properly treated. A more recent survey conducted in eleven CARICOM countries by PAHO reported that the percentage of population served by sewage systems varied from 2 to 16%. The inadequate number of sewage treatment plants in operation, combined with poor operating conditions of available treatment plants, and the disposal practices of discharging mostly untreated wastewater are likely to have an adverse effect on the quality of coastal waters. The population of coastal dwellers in most of the countries in the region continues to grow steadily, thus increasing the amounts of poorly treated or untreated sewage waste waters being discharged into the coastal waters. The discharge of sewage can cause public health problems either from contact with polluted waters or from consumption of contaminated fish or shellfish. The discharge of untreated sewage effluents also produces long-term adverse impacts on the ecology of critical coastal ecosystems in localized areas due to the contribution of nutrients and other pollutants. Pollution due to inadequate sewage disposal causes nutrient enrichment around population centers, and high nutrient levels and even eutrophication near treatment facilities and sewage outfalls. Increased nutrient concentrations promote increased algal and bacterial growth, degradation of seagrass and coral reef ecosystems, decreased fisheries production, along with risks to human health.
The past decade has also witnessed an increasing growth in the regions tourism, an industry dependent on the quality of the natural environment. Estimates provided by Caribbean Tourism Organization (CTO) indicate that the total stayover tourist arrival to the Caribbean region is close to 12 million visitors per year, a figure which does not include the tourists visiting coastal areas of the Gulf of Mexico, Central America, the Mexican Caribbean and the northern coast of South America. In addition, CTO statistics for daily cruise ship visitors for the period of 1991 and 1992 indicated close to 8 million visitors per year. In response to the increasing flux of tourists, hotels and recreational facilities are being built in the region. Because of the lack of the necessary municipal sewerage systems, hotels are placed in the position of operating their own treatment plants. According to current reports, only 25% of the treatment plants operated by hotels and resort complexes are in good operating condition.
There are considerable efforts underway in the Caribbean region to increase the proportion of population served by communal sewerage systems, in spite of the high costs involved. The prohibitively high costs of building and maintaining traditional sewage treatment plants are frequently given as a reason for not treating the sewage before its disposal. There are however several biological methods of treatment available for sewage not contaminated with wastes of industrial origin, which would be suitable to the tropical and sub-tropical character of the Caribbean region. Unfortunately, in most instances, sewage does not only contain human excreta, but also various environmentally unfriendly compounds used in households, such as detergents. The problem is further exacerbated by the common practice of discharging untreated or inadequately treated industrial waste water into the domestic waste water stream. As a result, most sewers contain a variety of toxic and nonbiodegradable substances, which make their treatment less effective and more costly. It is estimated that less than 2% of the urban sewage is treated before its disposal, and that the proportion of treated sewage from rural communities is probably even lower. The outfalls of the sewerage systems are usually very short, contributing to the pollution of nearshore waters.
An additional source of sewage is from the increasing number of ships and recreational vessels within the region. Larger ships have holding tanks for sewage, which, according to Annex IV of MARPOL, they are not permitted to discharge within four miles of the nearest land, unless they have approved treatment plants on board. Coastal cargo vessels and recreational boats do not have holding tanks, and are likely to discharge their waste waters in marinas and nearshore coastal areas due to the lack of port reception facilities for sewage wastes in most of the countries in the region.
The alleviation of the sewage problem and the creation of a long term viable economy will necessitate a political commitment to develope and enforce legislation relevant to the management of residential and tourism development in the coastal zone, as well as adherence to planning policies taking into account the potential environmental impacts of development. Improving existing sewage disposal facilities, or building new ones where necessary is important, as is ensuring that individual houses and resorts have sewage disposal systems, such as septic tanks. Larger resorts should use existing municipal sewage systems, where available, or install and manage their own packaging plants.
The Wider Caribbean region is one of the largest oil producing areas of the world with a production of approximately 170 x 106 tons per year. The main oil producing countries are Colombia, Mexico, Trinidad and Tobago, USA, and Venezuela. Most of the oil produced within the Wider Caribbean region is shipped within the region resulting in an intricate network of distribution routes. The sites most vulnerable for accidents are areas where tankers move through restricted channels and in the vicinity of ports. In addition to tankers, a number of tank barges also operate in the region in support of extensive oil refineries and petrochemical industries. In spite of regulations established in Annex I of MARPOL 73/78, tankers and barges do not always use port facilities for the disposal of bilge and tank washing and wastes, and a significant amount of oil is discharged into the coastal areas of the Wider Caribbean region this way. This deliberate release far exceeds the amount of oil entering the sea from accidental oil spills.
Offshore oil and gas exploitation can become sources of pollution, either in the form of accidental oil spills or from the release of "produced water" from the oil-bearing strata with the oil and the gas at the time of production. The "produced water is discharged into the marine environment together with waste drilling chemicals and mud, and may contain substances that exert high oxygen demand, together with toxic poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), benzene, ethylbenzene, xylene and heavy metals, such as lead, copper, nickel and mercury. Accidental oil spills from offshore operations are often caused by pipeline breakage, well blowouts, platform fires overflows and equipment malfunctioning. In addition to the accidental oil spills, there is also a significant amount of natural seepage of petroleum hydrocarbons from submarine oil deposits, which contributes to marine pollution. Unlike the previously described sources of oil pollution, natural oil seepages are very difficult to estimate.
Much of the information on oil pollution levels in coastal and marine waters of the Wider Caribbean Region comes from the UNEP-IOC/IOCARIBE CARIPOL (Caribbean Oil Pollution Database) Program initiated in 1979. The data gathered by CARIPOL indicated that the concentration of dissolved/dispersed petroleum hydrocarbons (DDPHs) are generally low in offshore waters, while relatively high levels are found in enclosed coastal areas. Oil refineries and petrochemical plants were also seen as the major sources of coastal oil pollution within the region. NOAA Status and Trends Programme has been gathering information about the accumulation of petroleum hydrocarbons, particularly toxic compounds, such as PAHs, in sediments and marine organisms along the U.S Gulf Coast. The CARIPOL Programme has also obtained similar information along the Mexican Gulf coast and the coastal areas of the Caribbean region.
The impact of oil pollution on the ecology of coastal and marine ecosystems and the species that inhabit them is particularly destructive following massive oil spills caused by maritime accidents. However, information required to completely understand the ecological and health risks caused by long-term chronic oil discharges into the coastal marine environment of the Wider Caribbean Region is very limited. Corals do not die from oil remaining on the surface of the water. However, gas exchange between the water and the atmosphere is decreased, with the possible result of oxygen depletion in enclosed bays where surface wave action is minimal. Coral death results from smothering when submerged oil directly adheres to coral surfaces, and oil slicks affect sea birds and other marine animals. In addition, tar accumulation on beaches reduces tourism potential of coastal areas.
Rivers bring a considerable amount of sediments into the coastal and marine ecosystems of many Wider Caribbean region nations. Natural geochemical processes control most of the suspended and dissolved materials carried by these rivers. However, human activities can increase the amount of sediments in the rivers. These activities include erosion of the river basin watershed caused by deforestation, urbanization, agricultural activities, and by a variety of pollutants discharged into the waters. Most of the rivers discharge sediment loads ranging between 100 and 1000 mg/l into the coastal waters of the Wider Caribbean region. The yearly sediment load in the region can be estimated at 109 tons per year, which is approximately 12% of the global sediment input from rivers, estimated at 8 * 109 tons/year. Most land in Caribbean region, especially on the small islands, is relatively near the ocean, making the coastal and marine environments especially vulnerable to sedimentation caused by human activities. In addition, the coastal areas are under increasing development pressure, while the shortage of land on small islands forces development activities onto steeper, erosion prone terrain. In many Caribbean countries, intensive mining of beach sand, as well as inappropriate coastal engineering, such as the construction of breakwaters and seawalls, has lead to increased coastal erosion. All these activities combined can have serious ecological impacts.
In the Wider Caribbean Region, deforestation of the river basin watersheds is likely the biggest human activity contributing to sediments entering the coastal zone. Continued economic growth in the region has brought about changes in the traditional uses of land. Increased agricultural development has taken place at the expense of forestlands. There is a limited amount of information available about the long-term effects of siltation in coastal waters, most of which has been gathered from remote sensing sources and coral reef surveys. Long-term data is needed to establish a time series of patterns and consequences of land use changes in drainage basins. The increased turbidity of coastal waters place a continuous stress on critical coastal ecosystems, such as coral reefs. The negative effect of siltation on coral reefs has been confirmed by studies conducted on the coasts of Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, among other locations. Increased sedimentation can cause a variety of negative impacts on coral reefs. These include screening out light needed for photosynthesis, scouring of coral by sand and other transported sediments, poor survival of juvenile coral due to loss of suitable substrata, and the direct smothering of coral in cases of extreme sedimentation.
Mining and dredging operations can also be a direct source of siltation. The mining of bauxite is particularly important for the economies of Jamaica, Suriname, Guyana, and to a lesser degree the Dominican Republic and Haiti. In the case of Jamaica, bauxite wastes are not discharged into rivers or coastal areas but into deposition ponds. There is little information about the final disposal of wastes from bauxite operations for the other mentioned countries. Other mining operations within the Wider Caribbean Region include the mining and processing of ores for the production of nickel oxide in Cuba and the Dominican Republic. The mining activities take place in areas close to the coast. Again, little information exists about the disposal of mine tailings in rivers of adjacent coastal waters.
Dredging is another contributor to the siltation of coastal waters. Dredge materials are generally contaminated sediments containing toxic heavy metals, organic pollutants etc. originating from domestic and industrial point discharges and non-point sources. Dredging of shallow coastal waters to keep open shipping lanes, while not producing pollution, causes serious re-suspension of sediments and resulting decrease of water clarity. Increased water turbidity decreases the productivity of coral reefs and seagrass beds, which rely on light for photosynthesis. In cases of high sediment load, physical smothering of coral reefs, seagrasses, and associated filter feeders and other benthic organisms is also possible. A related problem is the transport of pesticides and herbicides bound to sediments to the marine environment.
The discharge of nutrients into coastal waters is a major cause of eutrophication, especially in areas of limited water circulation. Nutrient enrichment is an increasing concern in the Wider Caribbean Region. The main nutrients are nitrogen and phosphorus compounds, and they enter coastal waters from point and non-point sources. Eutrophication may cause algal blooms, changes in the aquatic community structure, decreased biological diversity, fish kills and oxygen depletion events. The presence of nutrients in the water column enhances the growth of plants, and in some cases may cause algae to overgrow the corals or seagrasses that were previously present. Habitat degradation will in turn cause decreased fisheries production and loss of recreational and tourism potential
Fertilizers used in agriculture are one source of nutrients reaching the coastal zone. Continued economic growth and development has drastically changed the traditional land use patterns of the Wider Caribbean Region. Agricultural development has been rapid, and, in addition, coastal areas have seen increased population growth together with changes in adjacent land use, increasing the pressures on the marine and coastal areas. Sewage from coastal settlements is also a major source of nutrients in coastal waters. In addition, nutrients, especially nitrogen, enter the marine environment via atmospheric deposition. Traffic is an important source of these atmospheric nutrients.
To control the sources of nutrient enrichment and to reverse the adverse effects of eutrophication, it will be necessary to improve the effectiveness of nutrient reduction in sewage treatment plants and to control the runoff from non-point sources by improving management practices in agriculture. In addition, practices that promote long-term benefits and cause the least damage to interrelated ecosystems should be encouraged. Tourism, which is of great importance to the economies of the Wider Caribbean Region, is directly dependent on the quality of the coastal environment. When eutrophication occurs, the ecological and aesthetic quality of the environment is altered and, in severe cases, recreational use is prevented.
Pesticides (insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, etc.) are extensively used in conjunction with agriculture within the Wider Caribbean Region. Pesticides reach the coastal and marine environment via rivers and by atmospheric transport. Pesticides in the marine environment may affect living organisms, and, through contamination of seafood, may become a public health problem. It has been estimated that 90% of the pesticides that are applied do not reach the targeted species. Pesticides are highly toxic and tend to accumulate in the coastal and marine biota, making pesticide contamination a serious concern. The negative effects of pesticides in the marine and coastal environments include changes in reef community structure, such as decreases in live coral cover and increases in algae and sponges and damage to seagrass beds and other aquatic vegetation from herbicides. Marine organisms may be affected either directly, as the pesticide moves through the food chain and accumulate in the biota, or by loss or alteration of their habitat. This, in turn, will lead to decreased fisheries production. Pesticides may cause fish kills in areas of poor water circulation, and groundwater and drinking water supplies may become contaminated. Areas under particular threat are those with little water exchange and circulation, where pesticide residues dont get flushed out quickly.
Many of the monitoring programs developed to determine the presence of pesticide residues accumulated in sediments and the marine biota in the Wider Caribbean Region have concentrated on a limited number of pesticides of known long-term environmental impact and toxicity. These pesticides include DDTs, Chlordanes, Dieldrin, Endrin, Aldrin, HCBs, Heptachlor and its epoxides, Endosulfan, among others. NOAAs Status and Trends Mussel Watch Program (MWP) have conducted most of the published surveys of pesticides in sediments and marine organisms of the Wider Caribbean Region. In 1986 and 1987, DDTs were still the most abundant compounds and their levels were considerably higher in oyster tissues than in sediments. Until recently, the MWP have concentrated their work on the U.S Gulf Coast, and limited data are as of yet available for most Caribbean nations.
Efforts to reduce pesticides will depend on a change in agricultural practices and in the handling of pesticides. The environmental effects depend on the chemicals used, quantities applied, the biophysical layout of the farm, including amount of vegetation cover, the slope, drainage and the presence of riparian buffer zones along rivers and streams. Land can be set aside for coastal erosion and introduction of newer pesticides with much lower application rates. Some pesticides and many insecticides are sediment-binding, and the amount reaching the coastal environment could be reduced by controlling soil erosion in agricultural areas. Water-soluble pesticides are potentially more damaging because they easily enter the coastal environment. The end of the rainy season poses a time of particular threat to surface water contamination because of potential overflow from catchment areas to nearby rivers and streams. There is not very much data available yet about the behaviour of these pesticides in the marine environment when applied in the tropical coastal zones, including degradation rates, fractionization partition and biological update, and transfer through the food chain to humans. Data on the presence of second and third generation pesticides has been obtained from the Caribbean coasts of Costa Rica, Nicaragua and Panama. It was determined that only residues of the pesticide chlorophyrifos showed widespread distribution in the analyzed sediments. Frequent fish kills were also observed after the application of the pesticides, indicating high toxicity to non-target organisms. It is clear that a modification in agricultural practices is necessary in order to reduce the impact of pesticides, as well as their transfer to, the aquatic environment.
Increasing amounts of solid wastes are generated within the Wider Caribbean region, coupled with deficient collection systems and inadequate disposal practices. Additionally, disposal of solid wastes originating from ships and other offshore sources are impacting the coastal areas of the region. The increasing amounts of solid wastes in the coastal zone are detrimental to the economies of many countries, especially those dependent on the tourist trade. Some objects, such as glass and hypodermic needles, can pose a health risk to those coming into contact with them. Scientists have documented an increasing number of injuries and death among marine mammals, fish, sea turtles, and birds due to entanglement. Furthermore, animals can mistake plastic items and pelagic tar as food sources. Some marine animals accidentally feeding on plastic may feel a sense of fullness, and as a result, slowly starve to death.
The land based solid waste pollution has its origin in inadequate disposal practices, such as using rivers and streams and mangrove swamps as dumpsites. Poorly managed landfills in coastal areas can also become sources of debris, especially in the rainy season, when runoff may wash wastes out to sea. At present there is little published information available about the amount of solid wastes generated in the Wider Caribbean region, and about how these wastes are handled prior to final disposal.
Solid wastes dumped at sea come from shipping, commercial fisheries, and other offshore activities. The disposal of solid wastes by ships in nearshore coastal areas is regulated by Annex V of the MARPOL 73/78 Convention. The Maritime Environment Committee of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) in July 1991 designated the Wider Caribbean region as a "Special Area" under the above regulations. However, in order to comply with Annex V of MARPOL, most countries in the region will need to provide port reception facilities for Annex V wastes generated by shipping activities. At present, many countries in the region lack such facilities. The lack of adequate port reception facilities could result in solid wastes being disposed of at sea, and being transported by wind and currents to shore often in locations distant from the original source of the material. Ship generated wastes account for approximately 80% of solid wastes in the coastal areas
Beach cleanups are performed in many countries of the region. Generally plastics are very common, while glass, metal containers, paper products and other materials are also commonly seen. The most effective way to reduce this pollution is to stop it at the source. To this end, increasing public awareness, strengthening local legislation, promoting proper garbage collection, transportation, and dispersal system, including the development of port reception facilities to comply with Annex V of MARPOL, are some potential solutions for the problem of ship generated pollution.
Toxic pollutants are organic and inorganic compounds, either synthesized or chemically transformed natural substances. When accidentally released into the marine environment, they can have severe adverse effects on marine ecosystems. Many compounds are very persistent in the aquatic environment, bio-accumulate in marine organisms, and are highly toxic to humans via the consumption of seafood. The sources of toxic pollutants are primarily industrial point sources, such as the petroleum industry (oil refineries and petrochemical plants), chemical industries (organic and inorganic), wood/pulp plants, pesticide production and formulation, metal and electroplating industries etc. Toxic substances also enter the marine environment from non-point sources via rivers and streams and through the atmosphere.
Toxic substances are generally released as a result of manufacturing operations, effluent discharges, and accidental spills. The wastes generated may contain heavy metals, carcinogenic hydrocarbons, dioxins, different types of pesticides, noxious organic and inorganic substances, etc. With increasing industrial development within the Wider Caribbean region, the discharge of toxic pollutants is a potential problem for every country in the region. Major industrial activity centers within the region are concentrated in a few areas, including the Texas and Louisiana region of the U.S. Gulf Coast, the industrial area of Lake Maracaibo in Venezuela, the El Mamonal Industrial complex in Cartagena Bay, Columbia, Kingston Harbour in Jamaica, and Havana Bay in Cuba. The extent of industrial toxic substances released into the environment depends on the location of the sites and the measures that companies are taking to reduce their waste flow. The potential effects of toxic substances in the marine and coastal environments include the destruction of fish and other wildlife leading to a loss of biodiversity, decrease in productivity of mangrove, seagrass and coral reef ecosystems, negative economic impacts relating to tourism and recreation, and human health risks through contaminated food.
Limiting the amount of toxic substances entering the coastal and marine ecosystems usually involves a legislative approach. The legislation will have to be not only implemented, but actively enforced to be effective. In future planning efforts special attention should be paid for the location of industrial sites in order to limit their effect on important coastal and marine ecosystems. Finally, each industry producing hazardous wastes needs to have an effluent and recipient monitoring program in place for compliance control.
Many of the land-based sources of pollution degrading the coastal and marine environment are reaching the marine environment through waterborne, airborne or direct discharges. Any pollution from a confined and discrete conveyance, such as a pipe, ditch, channel, tunnel, well, fissure, etc. is considered point source pollution. Examples of point source pollution include sewage effluents and various industrial discharges.
Domestic sewage is a significant contributor to marine pollution in the WCR. Typical pollutants in sewage effluents are suspended solids, oxygen demanding substances, nitrogen, phosphorous, oil, grease, and pathogens. Industrial wastewater has a wider range of pollutants, which are dependent on the type of industry producing the waste. Oil refinery wastewater produces a high amount of oxygen demanding substances, dissolved salts, phenol and sulfur compounds etc. Wastewater from the food processing industry, distilleries and soft drink industries is also high in oxygen demanding substances, as is chemical industry wastewater, which also frequently contains toxic substances.
Non-point source pollution is more difficult to recognize than point source pollution. Non-point source pollution emanates from unconfined or unchannelled sources, including agricultural run off, drainage or seepage, and atmospheric deposition. These pollutants reach the marine environment by surface water, through ground water flows, or by air. Examples of non-point sources of pollution include sediments, nutrients, pesticides, pathogens and solid waste. They are caused by activities such as tillage, fertilising, manure spreading, pesticide use, irrigation and clear cutting.
The effectiveness of existing wastewater collection and treatment facilities in the region, whether domestic or industrial, is usually constrained by limited capacity, poor maintenance practices, process malfunction, and lack of experienced or properly trained staff. Existing agricultural and forestry practices are often characterised by absence of consistent requirements for best management practices relating to non-point sources of pollution. Environmental management presents a demand for improved management practices and for controls to be put in place for different point as well as non-point sources of pollution. Attention also needs to be given to land and water use in the surrounding environment.
Most of the countries in the Wider Caribbean Region have adopted legal instruments to control various aspects of domestic and industrial wastewater disposal to coastal and marine waters. The degree to which these legal instruments are applied in the practical management and control of environmental pollution by governmental agencies varies from country to country, but is usually very weak. In many cases the legislation does not include systems for integrated permitting (which integrates all aspects of the environment, such as air, water, noise, waste, and risk), compliance control and enforcement. Integrated permitting aims to co-ordinate the time schedules and information required for sectoral permitting procedures, and aims to have a mechanism in charge of the co-ordination of different sectoral permits.
Environmental planning and management in this regard is a sectoral issue. However, the environmental sector is not the only sector with demands on the use and quality of coastal and marine waters. Other interests and demands need to be identified as well. The use and protection of water therefore necessitates an integrated approach to planning and management. The quality of surface water, as well as coastal and marine waters, is inter-linked with the use of the land and the sea. Because of this, planning and management activities will have to be performed in a multi-sectoral way. Coastal and marine planning and management should be seen as processes, which embrace environmental, socio-economic and demographic considerations, including issues such as land-sea interaction, interdisciplinary co-operation, participation of public and private sector organisations, balance between protection and development, and public participation. An efficient planning and management process can not take place without multi-sectoral participation and a co-ordinating body powerful enough to co-ordinate different sector agencies. The co-ordinating body will decide how the integration and co-ordination between different interests should be dealt with. It should then be the responsibility of the sector agencies to implement the decisions of the co-ordinating body.
Briefly, the aims of these planning activities are:
- To collect general information regarding existing conditions and overlapping development trends;
- To provide a basis for discussion and decisions regarding the priority to be given to different interests;
- To stimulate further in-depth planning or special studies; and
- To provide a basis for decisions in connection with permit applications and the implementation of various measures.
Regionally, the Land Based Sources (LBS) Protocol of the Cartagena Convention an instrument for dealing with environmental pollution reaching the marine environment from land-based sources. The Protocol is supported by a special subprogram of the Caribbean Environment Programme called the Assessment and Management of Environmental Pollution Sub-programme (AMEP).
The AMEP (Assessment and Management of Environmental Pollution) Subprogramme of the Caribbean Environment Programme deals with the assessment and management of environmental pollution. Description of AMEP, programme updates, and related technical reports can be found on our AMEP page.
These reports were used as sources for the previous text.
CEP Technical Report No. 32, Guidelines for Sediment Control Practices in the Insular Caribbean
CEP Technical Report No. 33, Regional Overview of Land-Based Sources of Pollution in the Wider Caribbean Region
More information about CEP Technical Reports
These sites are in no particular order. If you know of a site you think should be included in this list, please e-mail your suggestions to email@example.com.
MARINE POLLUTION IN THE CARIBBEAN
This site of the Regional Marine Pollution Emergency, Information and Training Center for the Wider Caribbean Region contains information about oil pollution, training, regional focal points, and contingency plans.
Tar and Oil Pollution Data for Stations in the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea (1979-89)
This page contains data collected by NOAA's Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory from the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico as part of the Caribbean Oil Pollution Database (CARIPOL) Project.
ECLAC/CDCC Waste Management Links
This site contains national contingency plans, information about waste management projects, technical documents and the oil spill protocol.
GENERAL MARINE POLLUTION
Smithsonian Institution Ocean Planet Exhibition Page on Marine Pollution
This very educational page has information about cross country sources of pollution, raw sewage, alien species, and America's watersheds.
Ocean News Issue #4 Marine Pollution
Ocean News is published by Bamfield Marine Station Public Education Programme. The pollution issue has information about sources and solutions of pollution as well as red tides, and is very educational.
Consortium for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) page on Environmental Treaties and Resource Indicators
The site contains a summary of Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of and Other Matter.
SITES WITH LISTS OF POLLUTION RELATED WEB SITES
A compilation of interesting sites with ocean pollution related information.
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Last updated: 21 august 2001
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